IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 2|1. Human nature: character, psychology

Character

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1.1 Look at the following adjectives and decide if any of them apply to you.

talkative eccentric cheerful indecisive clumsy

1.2 Now listen to three people. Decide who they are talking about and choose the adjectives in 1.1 to describe that person. Then complete the sentences.

Speaker 1: I used co live next door to an elderly lady who had about 20 cats! She could never rum away a stray animal — she said she preferred them to people. She’d been bom and raised in that house and she’d walk around the garden chatting away happily to all her cats. But, you know, I never saw her speak to a single human being!

Speaker 2: I first met Chris at high school. She sat next to me in one of my classes and we’ve been inseparable ever since. She made me laugh because she was always bumping into things or tripping over. One day, in biology, she managed to break five test tubes! But I know she’s always there for me, and you can never feel miserable around her because she’s always smiling.

Speaker 3: I’d like to describe someone I used to work with. He made my job quite difficult because he couldn’t work independently ar all. The main problem was that, if he had to choose between two or three different options, he just couldn’t make his mind up, so I would have to help him or choose for him. I don’t know whether he just lacked confidence, but it meant I couldn’t ger on with my own work and that made me look unreliable, which I’m not at all.


dictionary


anxious /ˈæŋ k  .ʃəs/ adjective WORRIED

  1. worried and nervous

My mother always gets a bit anxious if we don’t arrive when we say we will.

I saw my sister’s anxious face at the window.

The drought has made farmers anxious about the harvest.

apprehensive /ˌæp.rɪˈhen t.sɪv/ adjective

feeling worried about something that you are going to do

I’m a bit apprehensive about tomorrow’s meeting.

I’ve invited a lot of people to the party, but I’m a bit apprehensive that no one will come.

assertive /əˈsɜː.tɪv/ /-ˈsɝː.t ̬ɪv/ adjective

describes someone who behaves confidently and is not frightened to say what they want or believe

If you really want the promotion, you’ll have to be more assertive.

clumsy /ˈklʌm.zi/ adjective

  1. awkward in movement or manner

The first mobile phones were heavy and clumsy to use, but nowadays they are much easier to handle.

My attempts to apologize were very clumsy (= not said well) .

  1. describes someone who often has accidents because they do not behave in a careful, controlled way

That’s the third glass you’ve smashed this week — you’re so clumsy!

egotistic , egotistical /ˌiː.gə ʊ  ˈtɪs.tɪ.k ə l/ /-goʊ-/ adjective

egotism /ˈiː.gə ʊ  .tɪ.z ə m/ /-goʊ-/ noun [ U ] ( also egoism ) disapproving

thinking only about yourself and considering yourself better and more important than other people

Finding herself world-famous by the time she was eighteen only encouraged the actress’s egotism.

gullible /ˈgʌl.ə.bl ̩/ adjective

easily deceived or tricked, and too willing to believe everything that other people say

There are any number of miracle cures on the market for people gullible enough to buy them.

well-liked /ˌwelˈlaɪkt/ adjective

liked by many people

A colleague described him as well-liked and respected by all.

self-absorbed /ˌself.əbˈzɔːbd/ /-ˈzɔːrbd/ adjective usually disapproving

only interested in yourself and your own activities

self-assured /ˌself.əˈʃɔːd/ /-ˈʃɝːd/ adjective approving

having confidence in your own abilities

The interview showed her as a self-assured and mature student.

self-centred , US self-centered /ˌselfˈsen.təd/ /-t ̬ɚd/ adjective disapproving

only interested in yourself and your own activities

Robert is a self-centred, ambitious and bigoted man.

self-confident /ˌselfˈkɒn.fɪ.d ə nt/ /-ˈkɑːn-/ adjective approving

behaving calmly because you have no doubts about your ability or knowledge

At school he was popular and self-confident, and we weren’t surprised at his later success.

self-conscious /ˌselfˈkɒn.ʃəs/ /-ˈkɑːn-/ adjective

nervous or uncomfortable because you know what people think about you or your actions

He looked uncomfortable, like a self-conscious adolescent who’s gone to the wrong party.

self-congratulatory /ˌself.kənˌgræt.jʊˈleɪ.t ə r.i/ /-t ̬ɚ-/ adjective disapproving

praising yourself or saying how well you have done something

self-deprecating /ˌselfˈdep.rɪ.keɪ.tɪŋ/ /-t ̬ɪŋ/ adjective ( also self-deprecatory ) formal

trying to make yourself, your abilities or your achievements seem less important

a self-deprecating manner/remark

self-deprecating humour/jokes

self-important /ˌself.ɪmˈpɔː.t ə nt/ /-ˈpɔːr.t ̬ ə nt/ adjective

self-importance /ˌself.ɪmˈpɔː.t ə n t  s/ /-ˈpɔːr.t ̬ ə n t  s/ noun [ U ] disapproving

the belief that you are more important or have a higher value than other people

He’s a modest, mild-mannered man, without a trace of self-importance.

self-reliant /ˌself.rɪˈlaɪ.ənt/ adjective approving

not needing help or support from other people

Lone parents have to be self-reliant, resilient and inventive.

well-adjusted /ˌwel.əˈdʒʌs.tɪd/ adjective

describes a person who behaves sensibly and reasonably and whose behaviour is not difficult or strange

His family could not understand how this quiet, well-adjusted man could have been driven to this terrible deed.

well-behaved /ˌwel.bɪˈheɪvd/ adjective approving

behaving in a way that is accepted as correct

a well-behaved child

well-bred /ˌwelˈbred/ adjective

  1. speaking or behaving in a way that is generally considered correct and polite

A television announcer with a well-bred voice was reading the news.

  1. old-fashioned coming from a family that has a high social position

a well-bred young English woman

well-brought-up /ˌwel.brɔːˈtʌp/ /-brɑːˈt ̬ʌp/ adjective approving

describes people, especially children, who are polite and who act in a quiet and pleasant way, because they have been taught this behaviour at home

Some children were well brought up, despite family breakdown, he admitted.

well-mannered /ˌwelˈmæn.əd/ /-ɚd/ adjective

behaving in a pleasant and polite way

The other visitors were too well-mannered to complain.

well-rounded /ˌwelˈraʊn.dɪd/ adjective

involving or having experience in a wide range of ideas or activities

It’s a well-rounded article which is fair to both sides of the dispute.

She describes herself as a «well-rounded person» who works hard but has a varied social life.

bubbly /ˈbʌb.li/ adjective informal

(especially of a woman or girl) attractively full of energy and enthusiasm

She’s a very bubbly character.

out of character – not characteristic of someone

clash /klæʃ/ verb FIGHT

  1. [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] to fight or argue

Students clashed with police after demonstrations at five universities.

The government and the opposition parties have clashed over the cuts in defence spending.

  1. [ I ] If two opinions, statements or qualities clash, they are very different from each other

This latest statement from the White House clashes with important aspects of US foreign policy.

round sth off phrasal verb [ M ] COMPLETE

  1. to complete an event or activity in a pleasant or satisfactory way

To round off her education, her father sent her to a Swiss finishing school.

We rounded the meal off with a chocolate and rum cake.

javelin /ˈdʒæv.lɪn/ noun [ C ]

  1. a long stick with a pointed end which is thrown in sports competitions

labour-intensive UK , US labor-intensive /ˌleɪ.bər.ɪnˈten t  .sɪv/ /-bɚ-/ adjective

Industries and methods which are labour-intensive need a lot of workers

A lot of farming techniques have been abandoned because they were too labour-intensive.

teetotaller

UK  /ˌtiːˈtəʊ.təl.ərUS  /ˌtiːˈtoʊ.t̬əl.ɚ/

someone who never drinks alcohol:

He himself was a non-smoking teetotaller.

languish /ˈlæŋ.gwɪʃ/ verb [ I ]

to exist in an unpleasant or unwanted situation, often for a long time

After languishing in obscurity for many years, her early novels have recently been rediscovered.

He has been languishing in jail for the past twenty years.

The ruling party is languishing in third place in the opinion polls.

dazed /deɪzd/ adjective

very confused and unable to think clearly because you are shocked or have hit your head

You’re looking rather dazed — is anything wrong?

a dazed expression

dozy /ˈdəʊ.zi/ /ˈdoʊ-/ adjective

  1. informal tired and wanting to sleep

Drinking a beer at lunchtime makes me feel dozy all afternoon.

drowsy /ˈdraʊ.zi/ adjective

being in a state between sleeping and being awake

The room is so warm it’s making me feel drowsy.

run yourself down phrasal verb [ R ]

to make yourself tired and ill

Since he took that extra job, he’s really run himself down.

impair /ɪmˈpeə r / /-ˈper/ verb [ T ]

to spoil something or make it weaker so that it is less effective

A recurring knee injury may have impaired his chances of winning the tournament.

discrepancy /dɪˈskrep. ə n t  .si/ noun [ C or U ] formal

(a) difference between two things that should be the same

There is some discrepancy between the two accounts.

The committee is reportedly unhappy about the discrepancy in numbers.

be nothing short of являться ничем иным, как

used to emphasize a situation, quality or type of behaviour

The party was nothing short of a disaster.

Her behaviour was nothing short of rude.

His achievements as a political reformer have been nothing short of miraculous.

nod /nɒd/ /nɑːd/ verb [ I or T ] -dd-

to move your head down and then up, sometimes several times, especially to show agreement, approval or greeting or to show something by doing this

Many people in the audience nodded in agreement.

When I suggested a walk, Elena nodded enthusiastically.

She looked up and nodded for me to come in.

chuckle /ˈtʃʌk.l ̩/ verb [ I ]

to laugh quietly

grin /grɪn/ verb [ I ] -nn-

to smile a wide smile

He grinned at me from the doorway.

What are you grinning about?

scowl /skaʊl/ verb [ I ]

to look at someone or something with a very annoyed expression

The boy scowled at her and reluctantly followed her back into school.

giggle /ˈgɪg.l ̩/ verb [ I ]

to laugh repeatedly in a quiet but uncontrolled way, often at something silly or rude or when you are nervous

Stop that giggling at the back!

yawn /jɔːn/ /jɑːn/ verb [ I ]

to open the mouth wide and take a lot of air into the lungs and slowly send it out, usually when tired or bored

I can’t stop yawning — I must be tired.

frown /fraʊn/ verb [ I ]

to bring your eyebrows together so that there are lines on your face above your eyes to show that you are annoyed or worried

She frowned at me, clearly annoyed.

He frowned as he read the instructions, as if puzzled.

choke /tʃəʊk/ /tʃoʊk/ verb STOP BREATHING

  1. [ I or T ] If you choke, or if something chokes you, you stop breathing because something is blocking your throat

She choked to death on a fish bone.

Children can choke on peanuts.

stare /steə r / /ster/ verb [ I or T ]

to look for a long time with the eyes wide open, especially when surprised, frightened or thinking

Don’t stare at people like that, it’s rude.

Chuck sat quietly for hours staring into the distance, thinking of what might have been.

crawl /krɔːl/ /krɑːl/ verb MOVE

  1. [ I ] to move slowly or with difficulty, especially (of a person) with the body stretched out along the ground or on hands and knees

The child crawled across the floor.

The injured soldier crawled to safety.

hobble /ˈhɒb.l ̩/ /ˈhɑː.bl ̩/ verb WALK

  1. [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] to walk in an awkward way, usually because the feet or legs are injured

The last time I saw Rachel she was hobbling around with a stick.

stagger /ˈstæg.ə r / /-ɚ/ verb MOVE

  1. [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] to walk or move with difficulty as if you are going to fall

After he was attacked, he managed to stagger to the phone and call for help.

tiptoe /ˈtɪp.təʊ/ /-toʊ/ verb [ I usually + adv/prep ]

to walk on your toes with the heel of your foot lifted off the ground, especially in order not to make a noise

He waited until his daughter was asleep, then tiptoed quietly out of the room.

dash /dæʃ/ verb MOVE QUICKLY

  1. [ I ] to go somewhere quickly

I’ve been dashing around all day.

I must dash — I’ve got to be home by seven.

limp /lɪmp/ verb PERSON/ANIMAL

  1. [ I ] to walk slowly and with difficulty because of having an injured or painful leg or foot

Three minutes into the match, Jackson limped off the pitch with a serious ankle injury.

ramble /ˈræm.bl ̩/ verb WALK

  1. [ I usually + adverb or preposition ] to walk for pleasure, especially in the countryside

I love to ramble through the fields and lanes in this part of the country.

Shall we go rambling tomorrow?

stroll /strəʊl/ /stroʊl/ verb [ I ]

to walk in a slow relaxed manner, especially for pleasure

We could stroll into town if you like.

wander /ˈwɒn.də r / /ˈwɑːn.dɚ/ verb WALK

  1. [ I or T ] to walk around slowly in a relaxed way or without any clear purpose or direction

We spent the morning wandering around the old part of the city.

She was found several hours later, wandering the streets , lost.

1. Write the adjectives in the box in the correct part of the table.

anxious apprehensive assertive charming cheerful clumsy cynical

egotistical gullible self-confident self-conscious sensible tactful well-liked


2. Some adjectives which describe character use the prefixes self- and well-. Choose between self- and well- for each of the following adjectives and write the new adjectives below.

absorbed adjusted assured behaved brought-up centred
confident congratulatory deprecating educated important informed
mannered reliant rounded dressed

Complete words as in Example:

self-employed, self-contained…

well-deserved, well-furnished…


3. The following adjectives describe positive qualities. Add prefixes to make them negative.

considerate sensitive decisive patient reliable

1. A student has filled in this mind map. Make a mind map about yourself. Use it to practise talking about yourself for one to two minutes.


2. Complete the sentences with the singular or plural form of personality, character or characteristic.

Vocabulary note

The words personality and character are very close in meaning but they are not always used in the same way. Personality — the way you behave, feel and think, especially socially. Character — a combination of qualities which make someone different from other people.

Characteristic = things that are typical or noticeable about a person or thing (it can be a noun or an adjective).



3. In Part 2 of the IELTS Speaking test, you have to talk on a given topic for up to two minutes. Use the language and ideas in your mind map to answer these questions. Make a recording of yourself if possible.

Test tip

After Part 2 of the Speaking test, you may be asked one or two rounding-off questions, e.g. Do you still see this person? or Do you often make new friends? The examiner can ask these questions to help you extend your speaking time.


Describe a friend you have known for a long time.

You should talk about:

  • how long you have known them
  • how you met them
  • their personality and character
  • what you have in common and say what you like doing together.

You will have to talk about the topic for one to two minutes.

You have one minute to think about what you are going to say.

You can make some notes to help you if you wish.

Psychology

GE|Pre-Int|L18_pic3

1. Read the passage below. Are the following statements True, False or Not given? Before you answer the questions, highlight or underline the part of the passage you think will give you your answer.

Test tip

There are no tricks involved in True / False / Not given questions. Is the information not actually there (Not given) or is it the same as 01 the opposite of the information in the question (True or False)?


Would you prefer to be ‘popular’ or ‘well-liked’? A new study from The Australian National University (ANU) has shown that for Canberra’s young people, being well-liked is much more desirable than being popular, and being popular does not always mean you’re well-liked. The study by Stephanie Hawke, a PhD candidate in clinical psychology at ANU, looked at nearly 200 Year 9 and Year 11 students from across Canberra. It found that adolescents saw being popular and being well-liked as two very different things, and that young people may not see popularity as a desirable trait.

The research has been released as part of National Psychology Week. It is the first Australian study to address the issue of popularity and what it means to young people. Both boys and girls agreed that many popular teenagers are disliked by the year group as a whole,’ said Ms Hawke. ‘This can be for several reasons such as bullying, having an attitude of superiority and disrupting the classroom. Those students who are described as being both popular and well-liked manage to balance their high social status with positive qualities such as being kind and friendly.’

The study also found that there was a complicated relationship between both individual and group popularity, and how these were perceived by students. ‘One interesting finding is that popular students are likely to belong to popular groups. This was contrasted with well-liked students, who were much less likely to belong to groups of well-liked peers,’ said Ms Hawke. ‘It seems that being popular is about the group that you fit into, whereas being well-liked is about the individual person’s inherent characteristics. Almost all of the students interviewed said that they would prefer to be known as well-liked, as opposed to popular, because this is a reflection of who they are as a person.’ She added that the results indicate that popular students are not idealised in the way that popular culture sometimes portrays, and that once other students arc aware that many ‘popular’ students are not liked by others in the year group, it is possible that they will lose the power they are perceived to have.



Questions 1-10

Complete the notes below.

Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD for each answer.

Test tip

Remember that although the information on the question paper will paraphrase the information that you hear, it will be in the same order. Make sure you keep to the word limit you are given and be careful to check your spelling at the end. You can write your answers in capital letters or lower case.


You will hear a talk about different ways of learning. First you will have some time to look at questions 1 to 10.

Now listen carefully and answer questions 1 to 10.

Good morning, everyone. I he purpose of this series of lectures is to help you to become a better student by making you more aware of the psychology behind the learning process. In the past people were seen as either intelligent or unintelligent, and this was measured with an IQ test. However, psychologists now recognise that there are many different types of intelligence and these are reflected in your personality. The multiple intelligence theory first came to light in 1983 in Howard Gardner’s book Frames of Mind. In it, Gardner listed seven types of intelligence. The first of these is termed ‘linguistic’, and this describes people who are more interested in the written word and reading. The next kind of intelligence is ‘logical’, and this is used to describe people whose strengths are in subjects such as maths and science. Then there is ‘musical’ intelligence, followed by ‘kinaesthetic’, which relates to the body and movement. After that there is ‘visual’ intelligence, which describes people who are attracted by or drawn to images. And then the final two intelligences are ‘interpersonal’ — describing someone who is aware of the feelings of others — and ‘intrapersonal’, which concerns self-awareness. Over the years, researchers have put forward other types of intelligence to add to this list, but these are usually ignored as they tend to be rather complex and less easily defined.

So, how can we use this information in education? Well, these intelligences basically refer to your strengths and weaknesses. Once you have identified these you can build on your strengths by choosing activities that match your intelligence type. For example, a kinaesthetic learner is a typical fidgeter and needs active participation. This means they will struggle to learn from a lecture. Instead, kinaesthetic learners could participate in a game or anything that allows them to play an active role in the lesson. Visual learners meanwhile, can benefit from visual aids such as making a poster outlining key points.

So, how can you find out what kind of learner you are? Well, you simply need to think about how you prefer to do things in your everyday life. For example, if a visual learner was trying to teach someone how to use a new piece of equipment, they would naturally draw a diagram to show visually how the equipment is used. while a kinaesthetic learner would show how something works by giving a demonstration. Now, other questions you could ask yourself are…


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