IELTS|Adults|Advanced|Unit 10|1. Old and new

ielts_adv_u10_l1_1


Compare and contrast these two cities, using the photos for ideas. Focus on architecture, transportation and demography (changes in the population).

1. Read the prompt card and listen to the recording. Is everything the candidate says relevant to the task? Is her register appropriate?

Describe a city that you know well.
You should say:
  • how big the city is
  • what kind of buildings it has
  • what transportation is available
and explain what you particularly like or dislike about this city.

Candidate: OK, I’m going to talk to you about Venezia – that is to say, Venice – which my mother comes from originally. Her parents still live there but my mom moved away when she met my dad. He’s from Puglia in the south of Italy. We all live in Bari, the main city there. OK, sorry, now I’m going to describe Venice. What can I say about Venice? It’s … it’s an old city and its infrastructure hasn’t changed wry much in hundreds of years — it’s built on water, so instead of roads through the centre you haw waterways, canals, and to get around you can either walk or take a boat. In … in Venice, there are public ’vaporetti’ — those are the water buses which stop every so often to pick up passengers — and then there are lots of smaller water taxis, private boats and, of course, the beautiful gondolas which tourists love to take.

I feel very sad about Venice because it’s a city that is … how can I put it?… it’s losing its heart. Yeah, so so what I dislike about Venice is this: because so many people have moved away, more and more of the ’real’ shops have closed down. By ’real’ shops I mean bakers and other essential food shops, and it’s true, every time I go back there, another one has gone. You know, it’s really bad. If you walk through any part of Venice, nearly every shop you come across will be selling souvenirs, most of them rather tacky. I hate that. Well of course all year massive numbers of tourists visit Venice and I think it’s a terrible problem because the city just becomes like … like Disneyland, yeah, it’s true. To put it another way, it’s not a living city any longer. Mm, I know tourists bring money to the city but they’re killing it too, in a way.

It goes without saying that tourists come to Venice for the history, the buildings, the art. Venice looks so fantastic. Obviously there are no high-rise buildings, and that makes the city unusual, but the canals make it unique. …Most of the buildings in Venice are sinking. Right now there’s a lot of construction work going on to strengthen the…their foundations. There’s terrible subsidence and the whole of Venice is sinking. It’s really a big problem.

Examiner: Thank you.


2. Listen again and tick the words you hear. Check you understand all the words, using a dictionary if necessary.

construction              outskirts
foundations               rapid transit system
infrastructure            subsidence


Answers

All the words were in the recording, apart from outskirts and rapid transit system.

construction — the work of building or making something, especially buildings, bridges, etc.

foundations — the structures below the surface of the ground which support a building

infrastructure — the systems and services that ensure that a city, country or organisation operates effectively; for example, transport, power supply, rubbish collection

outskirts — areas that form the edge of a city or town

rapid transit system — a public network of fast trains serving a city

subsidence — when land or buildings sink to a lower level than before


3. After class, prepare brief notes about a city of your choice for the task in exercise 1. Practise talking for at least a minute, and try to use some of this useful language from the recording.

Useful language

  • By… I mean …
  • That is to say…
  • How can I put it?
  • To put it another way…
  • Of course …
  • It goes without saying that…
  • Obviously…

1. Read the passage quickly without stopping. Underline any words or phrases that are unfamiliar to you as you read. When you have finished, compare your underlinings in groups and discuss possible meaning.

💡You can use 🔗Page Marker to do this task.


* about 675 words

SHANGHAI: THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

pic2_IELTS|U10|L1

Shanghai is now the world’s most densely populated city, according to Wu Jiang, deputy director of the city’s urban planning administration bureau. ‘Ten million people are living in central Shanghai and another ten in the suburbs. We made mistakes and now we are establishing several plans that will control the development of new skyscrapers and deal with the problems they have created.’ Shanghai has been rising faster and higher than any city in the history of the world, but this is proving too much for the ground beneath to bear. ‘Shanghai’s ground condition is very soft,’ says architect Kuo-Liang Lee. ‘The rock bed is about 300 metres from  the surface and the underground water table is higher, only 1.5 metres at most from the surface. There are now more than 4,000 buildings over 100 metres tall in Shanghai. That results in extremely severe ground settlement.’

This is just one of the reasons why Wu Jiang and his colleagues are trying to halt the annexation of Shanghai’s skies. Other factors are dearth of greenery, serious pollution, inadequate transport and overcrowding on the streets of the city. Among the planned solutions are a metro system, a huge motorway network and an attempt at massive greening of the choking and dusty streets.

Several of the existing skyscrapers are among the tallest human constructions ever built and some of them are also among the most impressive in architectural terms. The 420-metre-high Jin Mao Tower, for example, is an extraordinary skyscraper, emblematic of the successful mingling of western and eastern styles. It reflects Chinese pagoda design, while at the same time echoing the art deco style of Manhattan’s most beautiful skyscrapers. A hotel occupies its upper 36 floors and spectacular views are offered on the 88th floor observation deck, both of the city outside and looking down the hollow insides of the building — not recommended for those suffering from vertigo!

Alongside these architectural wonders, however, are the less attractive results of the 21st-century building boom. Thomas Chow, co-director of the Shanghai-based Surv architecture and design practice, recently presented a paper to the Shanghai Design Biennale entitled ‘Five Ways to Ruin a City’. In it. he suggested that the city’s ill-considered and rapid growth had made it barely habitable. ‘In downtown Lujiazhui in Pudong, the scale is hostile and everything appears to have been enlarged on a photocopier; towers are towering, boulevards are 12 lanes wide (and uncrossable), without any relationship to human scale, activity or urban life,’ he wrote. Worse yet, he argued. Shanghai’s character was being obliterated in favour of cheap and tacky design solutions without creativity or soul. In Chow’s view, ‘The market’s rapid pace of wholesale importation of foreign imagery has resulted in a scary, perverse and at times ridiculous trend of turning modern cities into Disney-lands. The urban landscape is being littered with wholesale copies and replications of foreign styles.’

Wu Jiang wants to change all that. He talks excitedly of reducing plot ratios and making central Shanghai green and pleasant. ‘If we want Shanghai to be the best city in the world, it’s impossible to carry on with this kind of building. You can’t reduce that density through political power. You have to make it attractive for people to leave and live in new cities nearby.’ And so, on the outskirts of Shanghai, connected by massive new motorways and rapid transit railways, ten new cities, each of one million people and each with ten satellite towns of 200,000 people, are being built. One, New Harbour City, will have the biggest docks in the world; another, An Ting, will be a huge car manufacturing city; a third, called Song Jiang, will be a university centre.

Thus Shanghai hopes to build itself out of the problem that it has built itself into. At a pace unparalleled in the rest of the world, it is again racing down the track to a brighter future.


2. Complete each sentence with the correct ending.

Example:

0 According to Wu Jiang, the population of Shanghai is around 20 million, _with half of these living downtown._


Style extra

1. Study the way these linking words are used in the passage.

  • Other factors;
  • Alongside;
  • One … another… a third;
  • Among;
  • Worse yet;
  • Thus.

2. Use the linkers in the box to complete the summary of the conference in Bogota.

a third     alongside     among     another
but also     not only     one     thus

1. Where were the world’s first cities established? Using the pictures and the words below, describe favoured locations and explain their advantages to early settlers.

agriculture    defensive position    invader    irrigation    livestock    resources   

trading centre


2. You are going to hear part of a lecture on the ancient Sumerian cities of Ur and Uruk. Before you listen, read the summary below and decide what information you need to listen for to fill the spaces.


Then listen and answer questions 1-9 with words you hear in the recording.

One of the most important archaeological protects ever undertaken has to be that of the ancient Sumerian city of Ur, because it threw a great deal of light onto the previously dark past and expanded our knowledge in so many areas, from urban planning to the beginnings of writing. These excavations were a joint expedition between the British Museum and the University of Pennsylvania and were led by Leonard Woolley throughout, from 1922 until 1934.

From the extensive work of Wooley and his team, it was possible to establish that Ur was the very first city in the world, founded at least 5,500 years ago. Because Ur was strategically located close to the Euphrates River, there’s no question that its first settlers would have been self-sufficient. Indeed, it was their development of irrigation and the domestication of animals that allowed a traditionally nomadic people to settle in one place with their livestock, knowing that they could depend on a regular source of food. However, away from the river banks, the environment was fairly arid and as Ur developed, it was no longer possible to grow enough to feed its citizens – the soil simply wasn’t fertile enough to support the level of production that the population required.

For this reason, the people turned to trade. The inhabitants of Ur became highly skilled artisans and traded their goods for food and other resources.

The most flourishing period of Ur as a city was between 5,000 and 4,400 years ago, when it was an important cultural, religious and commercial centre. It was around 5,000 years ago that mankind’s first writing system developed, stemming initially from the need to record the city’s stocks of grain accurately.

Ur was not the largest city in the region at this time. While 4,700 years ago Ur had a population of 34,000 people, the trading centre Uruk, situated near the confluence of the Euphrates River and Iturungal Canal, had over 80,000 people, and extended over an area of 1,000 acres. Like any trading centre, Uruk had a diverse population, and was often referred to as “The Rainbow City” for this reason. It was actually two cities: there was the newer trading centre, Kullab, on the bank of the Euphrates, and Eanna, the religious centre, which fronted the Iturungal Canal.

From about 4,400 years ago, Ur’s power diminished but it rose again around 4,100 years ago. This started the period known as the Third Dynasty, when Ur-Nammu, the brother of King Utukhegal, established his kingship in Ur and its surroundings. Hardly had the Third Dynasty begun when it was brought to an abrupt end by invaders, who destroyed the city state and relegated Ur to being a backwater again.


Complete the summary below.

Write NO MORE THAN ONE WORD AND / OR A NUMBER for each answer.

Word building

1. Complete these extracts from the recording (ex.2 Listening block) with a word related to a word from the box.

archaeology   culture   extend   settle   strategy   surround

EXAMPLE: From the extensive work of Woolley and his team.


2. The passage contains the expressions wide-eyed and a real eye-opener, which are to do with observation and revelation. Match the expressions in italics with correct verbs.

check     ignore     agree     guard, look after     observe first-hand     

attract attention     see     be more complicated


Grammar

Inversion

1. The beginning of this sentence from the recording contains ‘inversion’.

Hardly had the Third Dynasty begun when it was brought to an abrupt end by invaders.

What is the stylistic effect of starting the sentence in this way, instead of saying:

The Third Dynasty had hardly begun when …

Here are some more examples of inversion. Click on the words defining the subject and describe its position in each sentence.



Inversion

Inversion means that a verb comes before the subject of a sentence. It is most common in questions, but it also occurs in certain other structures.

In most forms of inversion, an auxiliary verb or to be comes before the subject, as in most questions.

After so when it stands for part of a sentence

The water supply failed, and so did food production.

After negative and degree adverbs

Certain adverbs and adverbial phrases can be moved to the beginning of the clause for emphasis. These are usually negative in meaning, or are adverbs of degree (e.g. only, little).

Not only did the water supply fail, but so did food production.

Under no circumstances will access to the ruins be allowed.

No sooner was the building finished than it was demolished.

Little do we know how much history lies beneath these new skyscrapers.

In third conditional clauses

This is fairly formal.

Had the city defences been repaired in time, the flood might have been prevented. (= If the city defences had been repaired in time …)

After place adverbs

When a place adverb or adverbial phrase is moved to the beginning of the sentence, the main verb can be placed before the subject if it is in a simple tense.

Here comes the next party of tourists.

Beyond the city boundaries lived a farming community.


2. Rewrite the sentences without the inversion of the adverb.

EXAMPLE: Hardly could the gallery cope with the sudden influx of visitors.

The gallery could, hardly cope with the sudden influx of visitors.



3. Put the following sentences in order, starting with the adverbs given in brackets.

EXAMPLE: the new bridge / had to be declared / before / unsafe / had been used / it (Barely)

Barely had the new bridge been used before it had to he declared unsafe.



4. Join the ideas in 1-7 and a-g using Not only… and adding a word or phrase from the box.

a further    also    as well    too

EXAMPLE: 1 c Not only did Paris put in a bid for the 2012 Olympics, Madrid did too.

a 10 million live in its suburbs. b It was close to the Tigris. c Madrid did. d The countryside nearby is very beautiful.
e There are several museums. f They are sometimes poorly constructed. g It encourages the use of bicycles wherever possible.


5. Instead of the example in exercise 4, we could say: Paris put in a bid for the 2012 Olympics and so did Madrid.

Join these sentences in the same way.

WORDLIST

tacky /ˈtæk.i/ adjective LOW QUALITY

  1. INFORMAL DISAPPROVING of cheap quality or in bad style

The shop sold tacky souvenirs and ornaments.

subsidence /səbˈsaɪ.d ə n t  s/ , /ˈsʌb.sɪ-/ noun [ U ]

when land or buildings sink to a lower level

The building had to be demolished because of subsidence.

bear /beə r / /ber/ verb bore, borne or US ALSO born SUPPORT

  1. [ T ] to hold or support something

The chair, too fragile to bear her weight, collapsed.

halt /hɒlt/ /hɑːlt/ verb [ I or T ]

to (cause to) stop moving or doing something or happening

«Halt!» called the guard. «You can’t go any further without a permit.»

Production has halted at all of the company’s factories because of the pay dispute.

Security forces halted the demonstrators by blocking the road.

annexation /ˌæn.ekˈseɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ C or U ]

possession taken of a piece of land or a country, usually by force or without permission

The country’s annexation of its neighbour caused an outcry.

dearth /dɜːθ/ /dɝːθ/ noun [ S ] FORMAL

an amount or supply which is not large enough; a lack

a dearth of new homes in the region

hoke /tʃəʊk/ /tʃoʊk/ verb STOP BREATHING

  1. [ I or T ] If you choke, or if something chokes you, you stop breathing because something is blocking your throat

She choked to death on a fish bone.

Children can choke on peanuts.

Peanuts can choke a small child.

vertigo /ˈvɜː.tɪ.gəʊ/ /ˈvɝː.t ə.goʊ ̬ / noun [ U ]

a feeling of spinning round and being unable to balance, caused by looking down from a height

She can’t stand heights and has always suffered from vertigo.

obliterate /əˈblɪt. ə r.eɪt/ /-ˈblɪt.̬ə.reɪt/ verb

  1. [ T often passive ] to remove all signs of something, either by destroying it or by covering it so that it cannot be seen

The missile strike was devastating — the target was totally obliterated.

All of a sudden the view was obliterated by the fog.

perverse /pəˈvɜːs/ /pɚˈvɝːs/ adjective DISAPPROVING

strange and not what most people would expect or enjoy

Jack was being perverse and refusing to agree with anything we said.

She took a perverse pleasure in hearing that her sister was getting divorced.

wholesale /ˈhəʊl.seɪl/ /ˈhoʊl-/ adjective , adverb SELLING

  1. of or for the selling of goods in large amounts at low prices to shops and businesses, rather than the selling of goods in shops to customers

wholesale prices

a wholesale supplier/business

We only sell wholesale, not to the public.

irrigation /ˌɪr.ɪˈgeɪ.ʃ ə n/ noun [ U ]

to supply land with water so that crops and plants will grow

livestock /ˈlaɪv.stɒk/ /-stɑːk/ plural noun

animals, such as cows and sheep, and birds, such as chickens, kept on a farm

nomadic /nə ʊ  ˈmæd.ɪk/ /noʊ-/ adjective

moving from one place to another rather than living in one place all of the time

arid /ˈær.ɪd/ /ˈer-/ adjective

  1. very dry and without enough rain for plants

The desert is so arid that nothing can grow there.

fertile /ˈfɜː.taɪl/ /ˈfɝː.t̬ə l/ adjective LAND

  1. describes land that can produce a large number of good quality crops

artisan /ˈɑː.tɪ.zæn/ /ˈɑːr.t̬ɪ-/ noun [ C ]

a person who does skilled work with his or her hands

stem from sth phrasal verb

to start or develop as the result of something

Her problems stem from her difficult childhood.

Their disagreement stemmed from a misunderstanding.

confluence /ˈkɒn.fluː. ə n t  s/ /ˈkɑːn-/ noun [ C ] SPECIALIZED

the place where two rivers flow together and become one larger river

diminish /dɪˈmɪn.ɪʃ/ verb [ I or T ]

to reduce or be reduced in size or importance

I don’t want to diminish her achievements, but she did have a lot of help.

These memories will not be diminished by time.

We’ve seen our house diminish greatly/sharply/substantially in value over the last six months.

relegate /ˈrel.ɪ.geɪt/ verb [ T ]

  1. to put someone or something into a lower or less important rank or position

She resigned when she was relegated to a desk job.

The story was relegated to the middle pages of the paper.

first-hand , firsthand /ˌfɜːs t  ˈhænd/ /ˌfɝːs t -/ adverb

If you experience something first-hand, you experience it yourself

Most of the older reporters have experienced war first-hand.

see eye to eye

If two people see eye to eye, they agree with each other

My sisters don’t see eye to eye with me about the arrangements.

turn a blind eye

to ignore something that you know is wrong

Management often turn a blind eye to bullying in the workplace.

cast an/your eye over sth

to look quickly at something

Could you cast an eye over this report for me?

clap/lay/set eyes on sb/sth

to see someone or something for the first time

Everyone keeps talking about Patrick, but I’ve never clapped eyes on the man.

meet the eye

be more complicated

keep your /an eye on sth/sb

to watch or look after something or someone

Will you keep your eye on my suitcase while I go to get the tickets?

cover-up /ˈkʌv.ə.rʌp/ /-ɚ.ʌp/ noun [ C ]

an attempt to prevent the public discovering information about a serious crime or mistake

Allegations of a cover-up of the effects of industrial pollution have been strongly denied by the Environment Minister.

antiquity /ænˈtɪk.wɪ.ti/ /-wə.ti̬/ noun

[ U ] the distant past (= a long time ago), especially before the sixth century

Cannabis has been used for medicinal purposes since antiquity.

Before creating this sculpture, she studied all the masterpieces of classical antiquity.

inferior /ɪnˈfɪə.ri.ə r / /-ˈfɪr.i.ɚ/ adjective

  1. not good, or not as good as someone or something else

These products are inferior to those we bought last year.

She cited cases in which women had received inferior health care.

It was clear the group were regarded as intellectually/morally/socially inferior.

  1. SPECIALIZED lower, or of lower rank

an inferior officer

retreat /rɪˈtriːt/ noun POSITION

[ C ] a private and safe place

a country/mountain/lakeside retreat

dweller /ˈdwel.ə r / /-ɚ/ noun

city/town/cave, etc. dweller

a person who lives in a city, town, cave, etc.

influx /ˈɪn.flʌks/ noun [ U ]

the arrival of a large number of people or things at the same time

Turkey is expecting an influx of several thousand refugees over the next few days.

adjacent /əˈdʒeɪ.s ə nt/ adjective FORMAL

very near, next to, or touching

They work in adjacent buildings.

They lived in a house adjacent to the railway.

stagecoach /ˈsteɪdʒ.kəʊtʃ/ /-koʊtʃ/ noun [ C ]

(in the past) a covered vehicle pulled by horses that carried passengers and goods on regular routes

sprawl /sprɔːl/ /sprɑːl/ noun DISAPPROVING CITY

  1. [ C usually singular ] a large area of land covered with buildings which have been added at different times so that it looks untidy

the urban sprawl of South Florida

unsustainable /ˌʌn.səˈsteɪ.nə.b ə l/ adjective

  1. Something that is unsustainable cannot continue at the same rate

The level of spending on pensions is unsustainable.

  1. causing damage to the environment by using more of something than can be replaced naturally

unsustainable fishing methods

insurmountable /ˌɪn.səˈmaʊn.tə.bl ̩/ /-sɚˈmaʊn.t̬ə-/ adjective FORMAL

(especially of a problem or a difficulty) so great that it cannot be dealt with successfully

insurmountable difficulties

This small country is faced with an insurmountable debt.

void /vɔɪd/ noun

  1. [ C usually singular ] a large hole or empty space

Before Einstein, space was regarded as a formless void.

  1. [ S ] a feeling of unhappiness because someone or something is missing

They tried to describe their attempts to fill the void left by their son’s death.

mortgage /ˈmɔː.gɪdʒ/ /ˈmɔːr-/ noun [ C ]

an agreement which allows you to borrow money from a bank or similar organization, especially in order to buy a house or  apartment, or the amount of money itself

They took out a £40 000 mortgage (= They borrowed £40 000) to buy the house.

a monthly mortgage payment

segregate /ˈseg.rɪ.geɪt/ verb [ T ]

  1. to keep one group of people apart from another and treat them differently, especially because of race or sex

a segregated school/society

Blacks were segregated from whites in every area of life.

  1. to keep one thing separate from another

The systems will have to be able to segregate clients’ money from the firm’s own cash.

contrive /kənˈtraɪv/ verb [ T ]

  1. to arrange a situation or event, or arrange for something to happen, using clever planning

Couldn’t you contrive a meeting between them? I think they’d be ideally suited.

[ + to infinitive ] Somehow she contrived to get tickets for the concert.

  1. to invent and/or make a device or other object in a clever and possibly unusual way

Do you think you could contrive something for hanging my clothes on until I can get a wardrobe?

conspicuous /kənˈspɪk.ju.əs/ adjective

very noticeable or attracting attention, often in a way that is not wanted

In China, her blonde hair was conspicuous.

He tried not to look conspicuous and moved slowly along the back of the room.

suburbia /səˈbɜː.bi.ə/ /-ˈbɝː-/ noun [ U ] MAINLY DISAPPROVING

  1. the outer parts of a town, where there are houses, but no large shops, places of work or places of entertainment

They live in a two-bedroomed house in the heart of suburbia.

  1. the way of life of people who live in the outer parts of a town

He has written a book about middle-class suburbia.

visionary /ˈvɪʒ. ə n.ri/ /-er.i/ noun [ C ] VIEW OF THE FUTURE

  1. a person who has the ability to imagine how a country, society, industry, etc. will develop in the future and to plan in a suitable way

glow /gləʊ/ /gloʊ/ noun [ S ] LIGHT

  1. when something produces a continuous light and/or heat

the glow of the fire

Neon emits a characteristic red glow.

prepossessing /ˌpriː.pəˈzes.ɪŋ/ adjective

interesting, noticeable or attractive

He wasn’t a very prepossessing sort of person.

The box didn’t look very prepossessing, but the necklace inside was beautiful.

blueprint /ˈbluː.prɪnt/ noun [ C ]

  1. a photographic copy of an early plan for a building or machine
  2. an early plan or design which explains how something might be achieved

their blueprint for economic reform

convalescent /ˌkɒn.vəˈles. ə nt/ /ˌkɑːn-/ noun [ C ]

someone who is getting better after a serious illness or injury

Most convalescents prefer to be cared for at home rather than in a hospital.

lineage /ˈlɪn.i.ɪdʒ/ noun [ C or U ] FORMAL

the members of a person’s family who are directly related to that person and who lived a long time before him or her

She’s very proud of her ancient royal lineage.

disperse /dɪˈspɜːs/ /-spɝːs/ verb [ I or T ]

to spread across or move away over a large area, or to make something do this

When the rain came down the crowds started to disperse.

Police dispersed the crowd that had gathered.

herd /hɜːd/ /hɝːd/ noun [ C + sing/pl verb ]

  1. a large group of animals of the same type that live and feed together

a herd of cattle/elephants/goats

trail /treɪl/ noun

[ S ] various pieces of information which together show where someone you are searching for has gone

The police admit that the thieves have left no trail for them to follow up.

midden

a heap (=large pile of animal waste, or waste material thrown by human beings in the past

It was customary for dung and bedding to be rotted for up to a year in a midden before spreading on the land.

millennium /mɪˈlen.i.əm/ noun [ C ] plural millennia or millenniums

a period of 1000 years, or the time when a period of 1000 years ends

The corpse had lain preserved in the soil for almost two millennia.

cradle /ˈkreɪ.dl/ ̩ noun [ C ] BED

  1. a small bed for a baby, especially one that swings from side to side

The nurse rocked the cradle.

dawn /dɔːn/ /dɑːn/ noun [ C or U ]

  1. the period in the day when light from the sun begins to appear in the sky

We woke at dawn.

We left as dawn was breaking (= starting).

We left at the break of dawn.

Twenty-three people were arrested and large quantities of heroin were seized in a dawn raid (= when police officers suddenly enter a building, in an attempt to catch people involved in illegal activities).

  1. the dawn of sth

LITERARY the start of a period of time or the beginning of something new

The fall of the Berlin Wall marked the dawn of a new era in European history.

  1. from dawn to dusk

from early morning until night

We worked from dawn to dusk, seven days a week.

surplus /ˈsɜː.pləs/ /ˈsɝː-/ noun [ C or U ], adjective

  1. (an amount which is) more than is needed

The world is now producing large food surpluses.

The government has authorized the army to sell its surplus weapons.

UK The store is selling off stock that is surplus to requirements (= more than they need to have).

  1. the amount of money you have left when you sell more than you buy, or spend less than you have

a budget/trade surplus

Fortunately the school’s bank account is currently in surplus.

seafaring /ˈsiːˌfeə.rɪŋ/ /-ˌfer.ɪŋ/ adjective [ before noun ] LITERARY

connected with travelling by sea

a seafaring man (= a sailor)

1. IELTS Reading


Test your understanding of this English lesson


2. If the first half of the sentence contains a negative verb form, you must use neither or nor.  Form sentences using the information in brackets.

EXAMPLE: The Pisa flight wasn’t full. (Rome)

The Pisa flight wasn’t full and neither was the Rome one.

The Pisa flight wasn’t full, nor was the Rome one.

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