Read the rules
We use both/neither/either for two things. You can use these words with a noun (both books, neither book etc.).
For example, you are going out to eat. There are two possible restaurants. You say:
1. Both restaurants are very good. (not The both restaurants)
2. Neither restaurant is expensive.
3. We can go to either restaurant. I don’t mind.
(either = one or the other, it doesn’t matter which one)
Read the rules
Both of … / neither of … / either of …
We use both of / neither of / either of + the/these/my/Tom’s … etc. So we say «both of the restaurants», «both of those restaurants» etc. (but not both of restaurants):
1. Both of these restaurants are very good.
2. Neither of the restaurants we went to was (or were) expensive.
3. I haven’t been to either of those restaurants. (= I haven’t been to one or the other)
You don’t need of after both. So you can say:
- Both my parents are from London. or Both of my parents …
You can use both of / neither of / either of + us/you/them:
1. (talking to two people) Can either of you speak Spanish?
2. I asked two people the way to the station, but neither of them could help me.
You must say «both of» before us/you/them:
- Both of us were very tired. (not Both us were …)
After neither of … a singular or a plural verb is possible:
- Neither of the children wants (or want) to go to bed.
You can also use both/neither/either alone, without a noun:
1. I couldn’t decide which of the two shirts to buy. I liked both. (or I liked both of them.)
2. «Is your friend British or American?» «Neither. She’s Australian.»
3. «Do you want tea or coffee?» «Either. I don’t mind.»
You can say:
I was both tired and hungry when I arrived home.
Both … and …
1. Both Chris and Pat were late.
2. I was both tired and hungry when I arrived home.
Neither … nor …
1. Neither Chris nor Pat came to the party.
2. Tom said he would contact me, but he neither wrote nor phoned.
Either … or …
1. I’m not sure where Maria’s from. She’s either Spanish or Italian.
2. Either you apologise or I’ll never speak to you again.
Compare either/neither/both (two things) and any/none/all (more than two):
|1. There are two good hotels here.
You could stay at either of them.
2. We tried two hotels.
Neither of them had any rooms. / Both of them were full.
|1. There are many good hotels here.
You could stay at any of them.
2. We tried a lot of hotels.
None of them had any rooms. / All of them were full.
Read the rules
All and everybody/everyone
We do not normally use all to mean everybody/everyone:
- Everybody enjoyed the party. (not All enjoyed)
But we say all of us/you/them (not everybody of …):
- All of us enjoyed the party. (not Everybody of us)
All and everything
Sometimes you can use all or everything:
- I’ll do all I can to help. or I’ll do everything I can to help.
You can say «all I can» / «all you need» etc., but we do not normally use all alone:
1. He thinks he knows everything. (not he knows all)
2. Our holiday was a disaster. Everything went wrong. (not All went wrong)
But you can say all about:
- He knows all about computers.
We also use all (not everything) to mean «the only thing(s)»:
- All I’ve eaten today is a sandwich. (= the only thing I’ve eaten today)
Read the rules
Every/everybody/everyone/everything are singular words, so we use a singular verb:
1. Every seat in the theatre was taken.
2. Everybody has arrived. (not have arrived)
But you can use they/them/their after everybody/everyone:
- Everybody said they enjoyed themselves. (= he or she enjoyed himself or herself)
Read the rules
Whole and all
Whole = complete, entire. Most often we use whole with singular nouns:
1. Did you read the whole book? (= all the book, not just a part of it)
2. Emily has lived her whole life in Scotland.
3. I was so hungry, I ate a whole packet of biscuits. (= a complete packet)
We use the/my/her etc. before whole. Compare whole and all:
- the whole book / all the book
- her whole life / all her life
We do not normally use whole with uncountable nouns. We say:
- I’ve spent all the money you gave me. (not the whole money)
Read the rules
Every/all/whole with time words
We use every to say how often something happens (every day / every Monday / every ten minutes / every three weeks etc.):
1. When we were on holiday, we went to the beach every day. (not all days)
2. The bus service is excellent. There’s a bus every ten minutes.
3. We don’t see each other very often — about every six months.
All day / the whole day = the complete day from beginning to end:
1. We spent all day / the whole day on the beach.
2. Dan was very quiet. He didn’t say a word all evening / the whole evening.
Note that we say all day (not all the day), all week (not all the week) etc.
Compare all the time and every time:
1. They never go out. They are at home all the time. (= always, continuously)
2. Every time I see you, you look different. (= each time, on every occasion)
Read the rules
Each and every are similar in meaning. Often it is possible to use each or every:
1. Each time (or Every time) I see you, you look different.
2. There’s a telephone in each room (or every room) of the house.
But each and every are not exactly the same. Study the difference:
|We use each when we think of things separately, one by one.
Study each sentence carefully. (= study the sentences one by one)
|We use every when we think of things as a group. The meaning is similar to all.
Every sentence must have a verb. (= all sentences in general)
|Each is more usual for a small number:
1. There were four books on the table.
Each book was a different colour.
2. (in a card game) At the beginning of the game, each player has three cards.
|Every is more usual for a large number:
1. Kate loves reading. She has read every book in the library. (= all the books)
2. I would like to visit every country in the world. (= all the countries)
Each (but not every) can be used for two things:
- In a football match, each team has eleven players. (not every team)
We use every (not each) to say how often something happens:
1. «How often do you use your computer?» «Every day.» (not Each day)
2. There’s a bus every ten minutes. (not each ten minutes)
Compare the structures we use with each and every:
|You can use each with a noun: each book, each student
You can use each alone (without a noun):
Each (= each room) was different.
Or you can use each one:
You can say each of (the … / these … / them etc.):
1. Read each of these sentences carefully.
2. Each of the books is a different colour.
3. Each of them is a different colour.
|You can use every with a noun: every book, every student
You can’t use every alone, but you can say every one:
You can say every one of… (but not every of):
1. I’ve read every one of those books.
(not every of those books)
2. I’ve read every one of them.
Read the rules
You can also use each in the middle or at the end of a sentence. For example:
1. The students were each given a book. (= Each student was given a book.)
2. These oranges cost 15 pence each.
Everyone and every one
Everyone (one word) is only for people (= everybody).
Every one (two words) is for things or people, and is similar to each one.
1. Everyone enjoyed the party. (= Everybody …)
2. Sarah is invited to lots of parties and she goes to every one. (= to every party)
Complete the sentences with both/neither/either
Complete the sentences with both/neither/either. Use of where necessary
Complete the sentences with both/neither/either + of us/them
Write sentences with both … and … / neither … nor … / either
Complete the sentences with neither/either/none/any
Complete these sentences with all, everything or everybody/everyone
Write sentences with whole
Now write sentences 6 and 7 again using all instead of whole
Complete these sentences using every with the following:
Which is the correct alternative?
Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with each or every
Put in each or every
Rewrite the sentences using each
Put in everyone (1 word) or every one (2 words)
If you open the lesson plan you will be able to assign separate pages as homework or all the homework pages at once.
- Both books, neither book
- Both of / neither of
- All and everybody / everyone
- Whole and all
- Each and every
- Everyone and every one
- Both / neither / either
- Both/neither/either + of us/them
- Write sentences
- Neither / either / none / any
- All, everything or everybody / everyone
- I read the whole book
- The whole money / all the money
- Sentences with each or every
- Each or every
- Rewrite the sentences
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|1. I am doing and I do
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|2. I am doing and I do
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|3. I did
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|4. I was doing
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|5. I have done
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|6. I have done 2
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|7. I have been doing
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|8. I've been doing / I've done
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|9. How long have you (been)...?
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|10. For/since; When/How long?
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|11. I have done and I did
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|12. I have done and I did 2
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|13. I had done
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|14. I had been doing
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|15. The future: I am doing / I do
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|16. I will and I'm going to
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|17. Future: Continuous/Perfect
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|18. Conditional I
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|19. Can, could and (be) able to
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|20. Have to and must
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|21. If I do... and If I did...
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|22. If I knew... I wish I knew...
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|23. Conditional III
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|24. Wish
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|25. Is done / was done
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|26. Be/been/being + done
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|27. Passive 3
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|28. Passive: He is said to...
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|29. Have something done
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|30. He said that...
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|31. Say and Tell
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|32. Do you know where..?
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|33. Auxiliary verbs; so/neither
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|34. Do you? Isn't it? etc.
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|35. Gerund
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|36. Verb + to Infinitive
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|37. Verb + Object + to Infinitive
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|38. -ing or to: change in meaning
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|39. Try/Need/Help: -ing or to
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|40. Like / Would like: -ing or to
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|41. Some/any/no/none
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|42. Much/many/few/little
- Adults|Grammar|Intermediate|43. Both/either/neither/all/every